Good business writing seeks to make information easy to understand. finish the project by Friday, January 23; place everything youve turned in to date, plus this assignment, on afloppy disk;and. Use a numbered list if you want to display items in a numbered series. nouns, pronouns, verbs. A: member is lowercase, as are congressmen and congresswoman. Use numbered lists when youre working with instructions to be done in sequence, and the numbers suggest ahierarchy. The AP Stylebook is a writing and editing reference for newsrooms, classrooms and corporate offices worldwide. In business writing, yes, use a colon at the end of the introductory stem sentence. The tricky thing is punctuation. A: A few examples: Radar, Laser, NATO, OPEC. If nothing else, your writing will be consistent. A: AP doesn't use italics in news stories. If numbers arent essential, use bullets, especially in business documents. By far, this is the most vexing punctuation issue! Continue from there down the list. When to Use a Colon With Capitalization: The puppy left a trail of destroyed items in his wake: shredded papers, mangled stuffed animals and what looked like the remains of a shoe. The individual list items following the complete sentence are usually lowercased if they arent complete sentences themselves. Mr. Heckle and Mr. Jeckle enjoy several feline activities: Like ordered lists, unordered lists that are part of an incomplete introductory sentence are lowercased and punctuated as if each item was inside the sentence.10, People who grew up in the 1980s watched a lot of television, including, The Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) recommends prefacing unordered lists with dashes instead of bullets, although bullets are an acceptable choice for some publications.AP style also recommends punctuating complete and incomplete introductory sentences with a colon and capitalizing the first word in each list item as well as punctuating each list item with a period even if the item is an incomplete sentence.11. No italics. Its all about readability. 2023 American Psychological Association, 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, Telephone: (800) 374-2721; (202) 336-5500. AP flags such cases atop the story with an editor's note. Should the first letter of the bullet list be capitalized? Punctuation Vertical lists can be ordered or unordered and can be introduced by complete or incomplete sentences, all of which affect how the individual list items are capitalized and punctuated. No periods on the end of a list of bullets unless its more than one sentence. The default rule is to lowercase words unless theres a reason they should be uppercase. However, you can omit the colon when a list follows a partial sentence. For lists of fragments, short phrases, or words, capitalization is optional: As with the other optional punctuation above, though, make sure to use a consistent capitalization style throughout your writing. x]0)} N "d/J]g<3gcyY?9Y\}xLgH*vVQ8e[!}mg%O*~OqoEhe9k=~o^p{?~7?ZOu6ImR)Gow=\JrP How will ChatGPT affect the communications profession? I was a fan until I realized it wasn't AP Style, all hail AP Style Honorable mention a.m. and p.m. - That's how they're used. Once again, complete sentences introducing unordered lists are traditionally punctuated with a colon. If you want to, you can press Enter on your keyboard or click the Copy button next to the text box to copy the text to your clipboard. Capitalize the first word of the title/heading and of any subtitle/subheading. Careful punctuation also reflects thought and care. She holds a B.A. Semicolon Use in Lists A properly inserted semicolon helps to provide pause and clarifying separation in sentences. Try it with these examples and see if the period makes more sense. always refer to the style guide and doublecheck capitalization recommendations. To see what I mean, read the lead-in word or phrase then read the first item on the list. But if youre following AP style, chances are youre overusing those big letters. Asthma or some allergies. %%EOF AP's style is now to capitalize Black in a racial, ethnic or cultural sense, conveying an essential . Theyre easy to read. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this websites owner is strictly prohibited. 10. AP editor Paula Froke fields questions of widest interest posed by subscribers to the online AP Stylebook. A: AP lowercases wine varietals such as cabernet sauvignon and chardonnay, and caps regional names such as Bordeaux, Sauternes and Chablis. STATES: Abbreviate state names when listed after a city. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style) recommends only using complete sentences for vertical numbered list items, not incomplete sentences as shown above.6, Unordered lists are united by commonality rather than rank or sequence. Bullets normally preface unordered list items.7. Although a little old-fashioned, some people like to use semicolons or commas in lists. hb```"3VTa`0p4 )x3JH2HgQW(Iz8Nul i@fP!40XE&,0e0v`do`6c $X1)`U&y[#b s .6[ Cite it. I like bananas. Bulleted lists allow a writer to create a list that stands out from the text without the implied chronology or order of importance that a numbered list might convey. I like apples. To keep bullets simple and consistent, I take a dual approach to styling them, based on whether the items in the list are complete sentences or partial sentences. Don't use the Oxford comma in a simple series before the conjunction. The buttons at the bottom let you choose specific case conversion options for the various styles. Q: When referring to your company in internal (or external) communications, which is correct: Corporate or corporate? A: We follow Webster's on that term, which is lowercase. To draw visual attention to items in a list without implying that items go in a certain order (e.g., chronology, importance, priority), use a bulleted list. The capitalization rules are as follows: Learn how to spot the 5 most common mistakes and fix them before you publish. This is ultimately a matter of stylistic preference. Colon Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun orFile Size: KB. Lowercase to in the infinitive (though not defined in the stylebook). Lowercase indefinite and definite articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style . However, most people now leave out the extra punctuation. Capitalization is a style choicewith sentence fragments, you can choose to start each with either upper- or lower-case letters. These might seem like confusing rules with too many exceptions, but youre always welcome to homebrew your own style rules. %PDF-1.4 % Q: Is it staff has or staff have? The first option is to use no punctuation after the bulleted items (including the final one), which may be better when the items are shorter and simpler. Numbered lists (as noted on p. 64 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association) can be used to denote items in a series, such as conclusions or procedural steps. Bonus: We have some great shortcuts to make your life easier. However, Garner qualifies this: "If you begin each item with a lowercase letter, put a semicolon at the end of each item, use and after the next-to-last item, and put a period after the last item." Not using a colon isnt wrong, but omit it only with certainty that you comply with the style guide of your choice. The capitalization rules are as follows: NY Times style capitalization is mainly used by writers for the NY Times but is also used widely throughout journalism. Lowercase the second word in a hyphenated compound when it is a prefix or suffix (e.g., Anti-itch,world-wide) or part of a single word. Q: For a subject/verb agreement, how should I treat "one or more features? Use periods, not semicolons, at the end of each section or a phrase." This is clear, but AP doesn't fully address when to omit a period at the end of each bullet. Q: Why is "doctorate in psychology" not capped, but "Bachelor of Arts" is? Everyone loves a vertical list. Unordered lists occasionally appear without bullets.8 However, strongly consider using bullets whenever possible because bullet-less list items can be difficult to identify on mobile devices with responsive text layouts. Capitalize words with four or more letters (including conjunctions and prepositions). Examples: House Cleaning Tips: Remove items from shelves before dusting. Capitalize the second word in a hyphenated compound if both words are equal and not suffices or prefixes (e.g., Cost-Benefit), Capitalize the first non-Greek letter after a lowercase Greek letter (e.g., -Bromohexanoic), Lowercase the first non-Greek letter after a capital Greek letter (e.g., -9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Capitalize the genus but not the species epithet. Online and technology (the web; the internet; URL; computers; e-commerce ). The Chicago Manual of Style has pages of rules and examples of bullet lists that agree with the Garner style recommendation to use semicolons after each item, use and after the next-to-last-item, and use a period at the end of the last item. I like oranges. The Associated Press Stylebook says when writing lists use periods, not semicolons, at the end of each section, whether it is a full sentence or a phrase.. A colon can introduce a long quotation or one of more than one sentence, because it says to a reader: "There's more coming here than you thought. AP style provides consistent guidelines for such publications in terms of grammar, spelling, punctuation and language usage. Unsubscribe at any time. Bullet point structure Don't mix and match sentence structures. Did you know that before the introduction of word processing (via word processors and computers), most publications displayed lists in either outline form or numbered lists. Our tool lets you convert the case of your text easily into sentence case. 28 0 obj <> endobj Take the sentence "She has decided: She won't have surgery to hide the scar.". A: AP uses dashes, not bullets, for lists in news stories that follow a colon. Follow @APStylebook AP uses dashes to introduce individual sections of a list, like this: - Put a space between the dash or bullet and the first word of each item in the list. While its not wrong and some style guides recommend this, its not the best business writing choice. In APA 7, you have two options for punctuating bulleted phrases: to include no punctuation after each list item and after the last list item or to include commas or semicolons, as appropriate, after each list item and final punctuation at the end of the list. You can quickly convert your text or title to all caps by selecting the UPPER button on the tool. Bachelor of Arts is capitalized as an academic degree, as are B.A. The two major capitalization styles for headlines and titles are sentence case and title case. This post links directly to APA Style topics of interest that users may not even know exist on the website. The huge difference is that AP colon rules allow you to use a colon after a sentence fragment. The rule of thumb in AP style is that things should be lowercased unless a rule indicates that theyre upper. Write it. The Chicago Manual of Style. Dont use a period after bullet lists that are not complete sentences or do not complete the opening stem sentence. RECOMMENDATION: Please avoid usingthe following format: If you write alot of reports and documents with lists, youll always do well if you follow the guidelines above, recognizing the need of the reader to grasp information quickly and easily. Youre singing my tune! Yes. Learn more about how to write better bullet lists. Q: My AP Stylebook always lists examples in italics, so it's difficult to see if italics are part of the style. They are also written without terminal punctuation (i.e., they dont end in a period, comma, colon, or semicolon).9. Very helpful stuff! r%Q! However, clear bullet list punctuation adds visual scan-ability to your business writing. The following rules apply to APA headline capitalization and title capitalization: Making sure you have the right capitalization for MLA headings is crucial for scholarly articles. How to Write Vertical Lists (Ordered and Unordered), How to Export PDF Tables from Adobe Acrobat to Excel (PC & Mac), How to Insert Images into Shapes in Microsoft Word (PC & Mac), How to Align the Periods in Numbered Lists in Microsoft Word (PC & Mac), How to Password Protect Files in Microsoft Word, How to Password Protect PDFs in Adobe Acrobat (PC & Mac). To create a bulleted list, use the bulleted list function of your word-processing program. Now check your email to confirm your subscription for My Blog Editor blog alerts. Were often asked whether you need a period at the end of each entry in a list. The capitalization rules are as follows: Capitalize the first and the last word. Today we'll look at numbered lists. When writing a list, ensure all items are syntactically and conceptually parallel. endstream endobj 32 0 obj <>stream Memorize the AP abbreviations. How about AP? The following examples demonstrate both options as well as how to integrate in-text citations into bulleted lists. When your writing is crisp, clear, and easy to understand, audiences will likely leave your site with a positive impression. Only use it to avoid ambiguity, if part of the series contains a conjunction or if you have a complex series of phrases. A: AP Stylebook entry on "collective nouns" says band names take plural verbs. By virtue of their formatting, numbered lists stand . Does this help? And consistency goes a long way in creating clear, credible content. Filed Under: Writing Tagged With: AP style, APA style, Chicago style, formatting, grammar, MLA style, punctuation. 7. In AP style, the word that begins the list or series should generally only be capitalized if it is a proper noun. For more AP style tips, watch Grammar Girls Beginning and Intermediate Guide to AP Style any time. The department prefers bullets, but punctuate them per AP style: After each bullet, capitalize the first letter and use periods at the end of each item. Should each point start with a capital letter and end with a period? Please try again. Q: There seem to be differing opinions on whether or not to capitalize the names of grapes used to make wine. endstream endobj startxref in compound modifiers (e.g., Mid-year, Anti-hero, etc.). A: In this instance, use a plural verb. Clean windows with a newspaper and . These aren't always the same abbreviations the mail carrier uses. They look good. Q: If using "member of Congress" instead of congressman/congresswoman, should "member" be capitalized? It is the same across all of the four styles. 7.2.15 New section added on when to capitalize names of degree programs. My name is Erin. For a series of complex terms, though, use commas after each for clarity. Were so programmed to capitalize only proper nouns and the first word of acomplete sentence that it almost seems wrong to capitalize single words and phrases. Take a digital photo of a family member. Bullets Associated Press style is to use dashes, not bullets, for lists that follow a colon. Thanks for the tips. Use lowercase at all . Sixth and Seventh streets). 'I hope this email finds you well:' Emailing During the Pandemic, Business Grammar: Pronoun Antecedent Errors, Use a period or other full stop after every bullet that is a sentence. When do Icapitalize the first letter in abulleteditem? Microsoft and Gregg would capitalize flat and sharp if they appeared in a title (unlike Rule 2). The Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) recommends prefacing unordered lists with dashes instead of bullets, although bullets are an acceptable choice for some publications.AP style also recommends punctuating complete and incomplete introductory sentences with a colon and capitalizing the first word in each list item as well as punctuating Q: Is the proper phrase "If money were no object" or "If money was no object"? social connection, in which people text as a way to connect with others; escapism, in which people text to get away from dull or uncomfortable situations such as waiting in line; distraction, in which people text to distract themselves while having a conversation with someone or being in a meeting; audacity, in which people text to get a response from someone, such as to break up with them or ask them on a date; nurturing, in which people text to foster relationships by saying things like good morning or I love you; and. 1 ). Capitalize nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs (including phrasal verbs such as "play with"), adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions. Two new and potentially controversial suggestions when writing bulleted lists are to use dashes instead of bullets and to always use periods (rather than semicolons) at the end of each section, even if it is a phrase and not a sentence. The listing below reflects a few departures from Associated Press (AP) style typically used in Johns Hopkins' web and print text, as well as other style points that, while they are not departures from AP style, require special attention. The Associated Press Stylebook provides an A-Z guide to issues such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other questions of language usage. Whether youre writing an essay, email, or cover letter, youll likely use parentheses. Title case is also commonly used for book titles, movies titles, song names, plays, and other works. Learn how your comment data is processed. Start each list item with a capital letter, unless case is an important part of the information conveyed by the listsuch as in a list of glossary terms. Thank you for subscribing to our newsletter! In business writing, capitalize the first letter and keep bullet list punctuation clean. Infants will try to help others who seem like they need help with simple tasks, such as carrying multiple objects. Next, read the lead-in word or phrase again followed by the second item on the list. Q: Is there a standard AP style for bulleted areas of text? For a list of short items, there is no need to punctuate each point. Do not capitalize articles, prepositions (regardless of length), and coordinating conjunctions. 205-921-5556. Unfortunately, many brands forego style guides and choose to wing . 5 simple story types to fill out your editorial calendar, A quick refresher on using minor punctuation marks in AP style, 8 tips on writing and editing from Jerry Seinfeld. Bulleted lists may be comprised of complete sentences or phrases. The Copyeditors Handbook (Einsohn). A: Use Arabic figures to indicate decades of history: the 1920s, the '80s Figures, numerals, dimensions (7-year-old boy; three years ago; 1 percent; third grade; size 9; 6-by-8-foot rug; 5 ounces; 68,000-square-foot facility). Please list your allergies and give date of last flare-up. If that sounds like a lot to remember, think of it this way instead: as a general rule of thumb, any word that's three letters or less should not be capitalized. The most accepted style guide in business writing and web publishing is the AP Stylebook. endstream endobj 29 0 obj <> endobj 30 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[603 407.25 648 420.75]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>><>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[270.75 387.75 315.75 401.25]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>><>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[281.25 368.25 318.75 381.75]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>>]/Contents[34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R]/CropBox[0 0 792 612]/MediaBox[0 0 792 612]/Parent 26 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSets[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 31 0 obj <>stream This is a grammar guide that accompanies our post on how to write better bullet points. So many choices to make! An updated list of units of measurement makes finding what you need a breeze. Garner's Modern American Usage inserts periods at the end of bullet lists only if the bullet list begins with a capital letter. A: Commas in a series are for clarity and prevention of ambiguities. "The cat's toy" means one cat owns that toy. Numbered, lettered, and bulleted lists. First, it is important to note that there are four main title capitalization styles: Chicago style, APA style, MLA style, and AP style. 5 Free French-to-English Translation Services. If you want to change your title from uppercase to title case, you can select the Title Case button above. All rights reserved. . A: a month's confinement, per the QUASI POSSESSIVES section of the "possessives" entry. ?X~soOr{/'gqjfZIuVCZQ!SdbnU)pHuL`>b"wlh)}4!ybjK Q: In denoting area, which is correct for numbers under 10 -- 5 acres or five acres?
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